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Goodman, M. Henry, A. Martinez-Yrizar, W.A. Keywords: Current status of mangrove forest, mangrove forest distribution, mangrove management, Indonesia . Simard, M., L. Fatpyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1665. A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. CMS: Mangrove Forest Cover Extent and Change across Major River Deltas, 2000-2016. 2005. About 42 percent of the worldâs mangroves are found in Asia, with 21 percent in Africa, 15 percent in North and Central America, 12 percent in Australia and the islands of â¦ The relationship between SRTM and Basal Area Weighted Height (Hba) had a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.78 and RMSE of 3.60 m at global scales. They are highly adapted to their environment, capable of excluding or expelling salt, allowing mangroves to thrive in highly saline waters and soils. Most of the data were collected in field plots throughout the Americas and Africa, using fixed or variable plot sizes. The database was prepared using Landsat satellite data from the year 2000. Figure 1. Mangrove forests are located in the tropics and sub-tropics but extend into temperate regions where they reach their geographical limits [1, 2]. Maps revealed a wide range of canopy heights, including maximum values (> 62 m) that surpass maximum heights of other forest types. Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Intertidal mangrove forests are a dynamic ecosystem experiencing rapid changes in extent and habitat quality over geological history, today and into the future. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1670, Spatial Coverage: Global within a circum-equatorial band from 31 degrees north to 39 degrees south, Temporal Coverage: 2000-01-01 to 2009-12-31, Temporal Resolution: One-time estimates for nominal year 2000, Study Area (All latitudes and longitudes are given in decimal degrees). Nature Geoscience, 12: 40–45. (2019) for more details. Global Mangrove Distribution, Aboveground Biomass, and Canopy Height. The three data products: mangrove aboveground biomass (agb), maximum height (hmax), and basal area weighted height (hba) are provided in separate files for each of the 116 countries. Mangroves are a critical forest ecosystem, dominating coastlines in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. The global mangrove forest AGB map was generated by linking the field-measured biomass–height allometry (described above) with SRTM estimates of Hba (that is, SRTMHba). 2019. The rate is as high as 3.6% in the Americas (Table 2). Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. Mangrove canopy height globally related to precipitation, temperature and cyclone frequency. Archive Center Mangrove forests in coastal Gabon are the tallest globally with forest stands that were estimated up to 63 m. The photo insets show locations where individual trees were measured in situ up to 65 m tall (Simard et al., 2019). (2014) generalized pantropical tree allometric model was used with species-specific wood density from the global wood density database (Chave et al., 2009) to calculate the above- and belowground (root) biomass of individual trees. Aim: Our scientiï¬c understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate.The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. The mean and maximum SRTMHmax values were computed for each country. The area covered by mangroves is influenced by a complex interaction between land position, rainfall hydrology, sea level, sedimentation, subsidence, storms and pest-predator relationships ). The global distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems. Their structural attributes vary considerably across spatial scales, yielding large uncertainties in regional and global estimates of carbon stocks. Mugasha, H.C. Muller-Landau, M. Mencuccini, B.W. Global map of mangrove maximum canopy height and location of sampling sites (numbers) where in situ data were collected. Regional biomass allometric models developed for this study had a combined RMSE of 57.2 Mg ha-1 (ranging from 46.6 Mg ha-1 to 72.0 Mg ha-1) and an R2 of 0.77. Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA-ECO), Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project (OTTER), Southern African Regional Science Initiative Project (SAFARI 2000), Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP II), Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom), Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America), Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0279-1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x, https;//doi.org/:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x, Mangrove basal-area weighted height (individual tree heights weighted in proportion to their basal area), Mangrove canopy maximum height (height of the tallest tree). In the last 50 years, human activities have strongly affected mangrove distributions, resulting in declines or expansions of worldwide mangrove area. Uncertainty was addressed by calibration with ICESat/GLAS Spaceborne Lidar mission data, refining the range of elevation data identified as mangrove cover, and subsequent validation by field data. Mangroves are quite the resilient bunch. Zanne. where Hi and ri are the height and radius (that is, DBH/2) of tree i, respectively, in meters. Tree density (that is, the no. Hmax was defined as the height of the tallest tree within a plot. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x, Chave, J., M. Rejou-Mechain, A. Búrquez, E. Chidumayo, M.S. About one third of the worldâs mangroves are found in Asia (39%), followed by Africa (21%) and North and Central America (15%) (FAO, 2007). of stems) was estimated for each plot and expressed per unit area (in ha). Australian Mangrove forests contain 41 species of mangrove from 19 plant families. Mangrove forests in the Everglades are distributed along the southern extent of ENP (Fig. Colgan, W.B.C. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1665 2019. The greatest mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia. Mangrove forests are among the worldâs most productive ecosystems, lying at the boundary between land and sea in tropical regions. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. The only flowering trees that can exist between land and sea, mangroves derive their name from the Spanish mangle, a name which probably arose during the period of the Spanish colonisation of the Americas in the late 15th century. The countries with the largest area of mangroves are: Estimates of mangrove diversity indicate that there are 16-24 families and 54-75 species worldwide. Mangrove forests are the most carbon-dense forests in the tropics. There are 348 data files in GeoTIFF format (.tif) with this dataset. Following is a brief synopsis of the data processing and modeling methods implemented to produce the three mangrove products. Ecology Letters, 12: 351–366. AGB was estimated for each individual tree tagged inside the plot, using regional or site-specific allometric equations as described by previous studies. Spatial variation, or zonation, is a common trait for mangrove forests both horizontally and vertically. Rivera-monroy, E. Castaneda-mova, N. Thomas, and T. Van der stocken. The GLAS lidar-derived maximum canopy height is defined as the height of the lidar pulse containing all its energy between the ground and the top of the tallest tree (referred to as the relative height of the 100th percentile, RH100). CMS: Aboveground Biomass for Mangrove Forest, Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique. The canopy height maps were generated using SRTM DEM data collected in February 2000 and lidar heights from the ICESat/GLAS Spaceborne Lidar mission. For comparison, the world's area of mangrove forests has been reduced by about 35% on a worldwide scale since the 1980s, and 2.1% of the existing worldwide mangrove area is lost each year. A major factor for their distribution pattern is â¦ The Chave et al. The study only included areas with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation values ranging from 0 to 55 m to eliminate inland areas over-classified as mangrove wetlands. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique. 2019-05-02, Dataset Version: 2019. Results were validated with in situ canopy height measurements and aboveground biomass estimates from field plots distributed across three continents. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel â¦ Global mangrove biomass allometry development. All rights reserved, Landsat Enables World’s Most Comprehensive Mangrove Assessment, Conserving Biodiversity: Manatees of Gabon in West-Central Africa, The International Day for the Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystem. Global mangrove distributions have fluctuated throughout human and geological history. A regression model was applied relating GLAS RH100 to SRTM elevation measurements obtain a global map of maximum canopy height: where HSRTM represents the original SRTM DEM, and SRTMHmax is the new maximum canopy height data set. Such losses of mangrove forests are alarming rates of loss of a major coastal environment. All preliminary data files were replaced with new files that incorporated some changes to the aboveground biomass estimation algorithm. More than 1,000 Landsat scenes obtained from the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) were classified using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. In addition to Hmax, a map of Hba, the basal area weighted height was generated and used as input for the AGB map. Despite this hardiness, mangroves cannot withstand cold temperatures and can only be found in World Mangrove Distribution It is estimated a total of 15.2 million hectares of mangroves are exist worldwide and their main distribution is in the tropical areas. The dual services of coastal protection and habitat for commercially important species make mangrove forests one of the most valuable ecosystems in the world. (DAAC). Nelson, A. Ngomanda, E.M. Nogueira, E. Ortiz-Malavassi, R. Pélissier, P. Ploton, C.M. Only areas with SRTM elevation values ranging from 0 to 55 m above mean sea level were included so as to remove some areas falsely identified as mangroves. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. GLAS lidar altimetry data were collected globally from 2003 to 2009, providing the only global lidar canopy and height measurement, with sparse samples distributed across the globe. Check out the following links for world maps of mangrove distribution Rivera-monroy, E. Castaneda-mova, N. Thomas, and T. Van der stocken. These spatially explicit maps of mangrove canopy height and AGB derived from space-borne remote sensing data and in situ measurements can be used to assess local-scale geophysical and environmental conditions that may regulate forest structure and carbon cycle dynamics. This procedure is a two-step process where SRTM is converted to SRTMHba and then to AGB using appropriate field-derived Hba to AGB allometry. File Properties: No data value: 0, Number of bands: one, Resolution: 30 m, EPSG: 4326. See Simard et al. Swenson, and A.E. From above, the Sundarbans mangrove forest is an impressive labyrinth of colors and textures. Total root biomass was estimated as 49% of the AGB. Global Mangrove Distribution, Aboveground Biomass, and Canopy Height. © 2020 Mangrove Action Project. But prior to this study, there was only an approximate knowledge of the distribution of mangroves in the Galapagos. 2019. Mangrove canopy height globally related to precipitation, temperature and cyclone frequency. Mangrove canopy height estimation with SRTM and ICESat/GLAS. Analysis of canopy height variance obtained from SRTM, lidar, and field measurements demonstrated that SRTM height characterizes mean overstory canopy height and maintains consistency over time when measuring canopy height in established mangrove forests. These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active January 1997; Authors: ... Map of Bangladesh showing the location of the Sundarbans, largest continuous mangrove forest in the worldâ¦ This dataset characterizes the global distribution, biomass, and canopy height of mangrove-forested wetlands based on remotely sensed and in situ field measurement data. The sum of individual trees within the plot was then computed and normalized, using plot sizes, to represent total forest stand AGB density in Mg ha–1. Oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis), mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) and grass species such as vines, sedges etc. There are 54-75 species of true mangroves, which are found only in the intertidal zones of coasts, and are taxonomically isolated from terrestrial counterparts. This threshold value preserves the tallest mangrove forest stands. The Hba and Hmax data were updated so that they are now capped at the 95th percentile of the maximum value (55 m), as outlined in the publication. However, the first mention of mangroves in ancient literature was made by Greek explorers in the time of Alexander the â¦ https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0279-1, Lagomasino, D., T. Fatoyinbo, S. Lee, E. Feliciano, M. Simard, and C. Trettin. This study offers a baseline to monitor national and regional trends in mangrove carbon stocks (Simard et al., 2019). Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. They provide many ecosystem services, such as support for local livelihoods through the provision of fuel, food and construction materials. Mangrove forests are considered hardy plants given their ability to survive in high saline waters and low-oxygen soils. Recommended Citation(s)*: Giri, C., E. Ochieng, L.L.Tieszen, Z. Zhu, A. Singh, T. Loveland, J. Masek, and N. Duke. In addition, it is at theâ¦ Estimates of 1) mangrove aboveground biomass (AGB), 2) maximum canopy height (height of the tallest tree), and 3) basal-area weighted height (individual tree heights weighted in proportion to their basal area) for the nominal year 2000 were derived across a 30-meter resolution global mangrove ecotype extent map using remotely-sensed canopy height measurements and region-specific allometric models. Certain species are found in monospecific bands parallel to the shore or in mosaics; however, patterns of distribution vary with location, both locally and regionally. Mangrove forests are often called âtidal forests,â âcoastal woodlandsâ or âoceanic rain forests.â The mangrove system supports genetically diverse groups of aquatic and terrestrial animals. The global model was generated using all of the plot data (n = 331) and Hba of the field data, while the regional models were generated for the Americas (using data from Colombia, USA, Venezuela, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, n = 81), East Africa (using data from Mozambique, n = 101) and South Asia (using data from Bangladesh, n = 149). This map is coincidental with the SRTM data set (that is, they are both from 2000) and, so far, it is the only one that specifically maps mangroves from Landsat data at 30-m resolution. In situ data were collected within a 15-year period after the SRTM data were obtained. There are many hypotheses about how and why zonation occurs, but no consensus has been reached. There are approximately 40 species of mangroves distributed worldwide. Maps of the three data products are provided for each of 116 countries. Rivera-Monroy, E. Castaneda-Moya, N. Thomas, and T. Van der Stocken. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Version 1.2: Data files were updated in May 2019 because the height to biomass (AGB) conversion equations in the associated Nature Geoscience publication were correct but were implemented incorrectly when generating the publicly available data files. Documentation Revision Date: 2016. Carbon pollution from factories, cars, and other sources is impacting the global climate. 2014. 2 A. Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Lewis, N.G. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, v1 (2000) Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status, v1 (1992 â 1993) Development Threat Index, v1 (2015) Global Development Potential Indices, v1 (2016) Global Grid of Probabilities of Urban Expansion to â¦ https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12629, Giri, C., Ochieng, E., Tieszen, L. L., Zhu, Z., Singh, A., Loveland, T., Masek, J. and Duke, N. 2011. 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1357, Fatoyinbo, T., E. Feliciano, D. Lagomasino, S. Lee, and C. Trettin. Maps revealed a wide range of canopy heights, including maximum values (> 62 m) that surpass maximum heights of other forest types. In addition, several files with missing data were replaced. 1.2. Field data were used to estimate forest structure attributes (that is, Hba, Hmax and AGB). Saldarriaga, and G. Vieilledent. To identify mangrove ecotype areas and mask non-mangrove regions in the SRTM elevation dataset, we used the global mangrove extent map from Giri et al. High-resolution insets in b–e: (b) Coastal Nariño and Cauca (Colombia),(c) Coastal Pará (Brazil), (d) Bombetoka Bay (Madagascar), and (e) Bintuni Bay (West Papua, Indonesia). SRTMHba was calculated by relating field values of Hba to SRTM DEM elevations: where HSRTM represents the original SRTM DEM and SRTMHba the new basal area weighted canopy height dataset. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent â¦ Global Mangrove Distribution, Aboveground Biomass, and Canopy Height. Simard, M., T. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. Forty species of mangroves dominate approximately 75% of the worldâs tropical coastlines between 25° N and 25° S. In certain locations, this range extends beyond these limits due to the movement of unusually warm waters from the equator. Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. The selected field sites (331 plots in total) included a wide variety of forest structure and mangrove ecotypes (for example, scrub, fringe, riverine and basin) with measured in situ tree heights ranging from 1 to 65 m. The mangrove field sites (Figure 2a) were distributed along a latitudinal range from 26º S (Maputo Reserve, Mozambique) to 25º N (Everglades, USA), encompassing the equatorial region. Salinity can still limit the distribution of mangroves, however, as can other environmental factors such as climate, tidal fluctuation, and sediment and wave energy. Climate and sea level have drastically altered mangrove distribution since their appearance in the geological record â¼75 million years ago (Mya), through to the Holocene. Mangroves are commonly found along sheltered coastlines in the tropics and sub-tropics where they fulfil important socio-economic and environmental functions. The in situ field data were used to derive stand-level allometry between AGB, basal area weighted height Hba and maximum canopy height Hmax. We used readily available Google Earth very high-resolution imagery to map mangrove distribution in the Galapagos. Mangrove forests are distributed in the inter-tidal region between the sea and the land in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world between approximately 30° N and 30° S latitude.Their global distribution is believed to be delimited by major ocean currents and the 20° C isotherm of seawater in Ryan, J.G. The largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world, Sundarbans, covers roughly 120 km east to west and 60 km north to south, Indonesiaâs mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the world. Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Filenames include the country name. Version 1.1: Science-quality data were released in March 2019. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Regional trends in mangrove carbon stocks ( Simard et al., 2019 ):,., trees were selected using a fixed-angle gauge files with missing data were obtained canopy height.... Waters and low-oxygen soils three mangrove products and construction materials the available global mangrove distribution Aboveground. % in the Galapagos mangrove forest in the Americas ( Table 2 ) Ploton, C.M weighted Hba. Forest stands files with missing data were obtained, using regional or site-specific allometric equations as described previous! The forest in the Galapagos, 2000-2016 of 87.9 and correlation coefficient R2 of 0.62 worldwide... 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