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In our study however, lapse of time after loss could not be accounted for. These groups will be referred to as non-depressed and depressed. Each of the 28 items offers 3 assertions: non-depressed (score 0, e.g., “I am sad once in a while”); mildly depressed (score 1, e.g., “I am sad many times.”); and clearly depressed (score 2, e.g., “I am sad all the time.”). So it seems that health threats are particularly important for depressive symptoms in adolescents. The non-depressed group consisted of 289 adolescents (66.8% girls, Mage = 16.94, 97.2% enrolled in education), whereas the depressed group consisted of 109 adolescents (74.3% girls, Mage = 17.09, 49.5% enrolled in education). Citation: Stikkelbroek Y, Bodden DHM, Kleinjan M, Reijnders M, van Baar AL (2016) Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, progressive ocular disease that is associated with degeneration of the photoreceptors. (Table 3). To examine the hypothesized mediation of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the association between the type of stressful life events and depression, we used the Model Indirect approach using MPLUS 7 with a bootstrap procedure to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the analyses and to estimate Type I errors. This shows that the use of multiple samples is indeed important in future research on cognitive emotion regulation . Emotion regulation strategies can be adaptive or maladaptive. Next, differences between both groups for the relations between model variables were tested per direct path, also using the chi-square difference test. In the depressed group, this association was not found, suggesting that non-depressed and depressed adolescents differ in their use of maladaptive and adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Relational challenging stressful life events were associated with maladaptive strategies as well as with two adaptive strategies: putting experiences into perspective and acceptance. The model fit indices for the mediation model within the whole sample were satisfactory (CFI = .95, RMSEA = .09, SRMR = .05). One specific and adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy, acceptance, was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as was also reported in a meta-analysis band colleagues . Hahm et al reported that 25.7% of RP patients had depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) . using the results of 24 recent articles from 1990 to 2010 about depression in university . Acceptance was not significantly associated with the degree of depressive symptoms within either subgroup. Quantitative Research Article Analysis Report. Our results showed that the percentage of RP patients with anxiety was 37% and that of depression was 26%. Abstract â This analysis triangulates qualitative and quantitative data from interviews, Geriatric Depression Scale scores, and patient records to evaluate poststroke depression. Chaumet-Riffaud et al reported that 36.5% of RP patients had anxiety and 15.5% had depression using the HADS questionnaire . No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192300. Adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, for instance acceptance, were not identified as mediators. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click 17â20 Seven questions relate to symptoms of depression and seven to anxiety. Because the psychological status of individuals often depends upon their cultural background, the results may be unique to our cohort. Stressful health threatening life events correlated weakly with other-blame, which did not significantly correlate with depressive symptoms. It is important to note that the depressive state was found to be significantly associated with every aspect of visual function including the BCVA in the better or worse eye, and the FAS, FFS, FVS and the NEI-VFQ25 subscale score. Junko Kamo, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062, Editor: Therese van Amelsvoort, Maastricht University, NETHERLANDS, Received: January 13, 2016; Accepted: July 29, 2016; Published: August 29, 2016. Because extreme scores on Acceptance could be maladaptive the score was transformed into a categorical variable high (score above 14), low (score less than 10) and medium . Quantitative outcome research is mostly conducted in the social sciences using the statistical methods used above to collect quantitative data from the research study. The percentages of life events reported by the total sample (N = 398) adolescents were 24.87% for loss; 33.17% for health threats, and 60.55% for relational challenges. A high score on acceptance immediately after a stressful life event could, for instance, be related to learned helplessness. In conclusion, the state of depression is closely related to visual functions in RP patients in Japan. This is the first psychological analysis of Asian RP patients. However, depressed and non-depressed adolescents did not differ significantly in these mediation relationships, which may be due to the size of the depressed sample. This research is part of the Adolescent Depression study of the University of Utrecht. Indirect paths were found in the non-depressed group, from relational challenging stressful life events to depressive symptoms via self-blame and refocusing on planning. Estimates apply to the total sample (N = 398). Dementia is one of the most burdensome illnesses in elderly populations worldwide. Taiji Sakamoto The following search uses Thoreau, our multi-database search tool, to find examples of quantitative research studies.However, you can search in any article or dissertation database for quantitative studies. The findings of this study support the general hypothesis that certain stressful life events were related to the level of depressive symptoms and that this relationship was mediated by maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The result was a final sample of 398 adolescents aged 11 to 22 years (68.8% girls, 92.5% Dutch) including 52 (13%) clinical depressed outpatients. Thus, this can lead to a potential bias but it was minimized by the recruiting cases consecutively. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to the anxiety and depression in RP patients. The maximum score is 21 for both the anxiety and depression subscales. Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.140, NL-3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands, To examine the correlations between the three stressful life event variables, the nine proposed mediators and the outcome measure of depression, we applied path analyses using the software package MPLUS 7 . If answers on gender (n = 3), age (n = 4), life events or scores for whole scales were missing, cases were also excluded from the analyses (n = 173), which amounted to 39.2% from the community and 38.1% from the outpatient sample. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or relational challenges. These findings are relevant for clinical practice to enhance prevention and treatment in order to detect and address specific mechanisms at work in depression. van Baar AL View broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The mean of the HADS-A score was 6.4 ± 3.8 (standard deviation, Fig 1A), the HADS-D score was 6.1 ± 3.6 (Fig 1B), and the mean NEI-VFQ25 score was 49.0 ± 20.1 in the RP patients. Maladaptive emotion regulation is also a risk factor for the recurrence of depression in adults . Depression Research Article Collection Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry provides a home for basic and clinical investigators, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, residents, and medical and graduate students to publish high quality research papers, reviews, new ideas and perspectives, debates, case reports, and applied technologies. PLOS ONE 13(1): e0192300. There was no significant correlation between HADS-A score and the mean score of NEI-VFQ 25 (r = -0.097, P = 0.31) (Fig 2A). In adults, emotion regulation plays a central role in the etiology and maintenance of clinical levels of psychopathology [32–34]. Funding: This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grant (15H04996). In the non-depressed group, self-blame (β = .252, p < .001), less positive reappraisal (β = -.269, p = .003) and less refocusing on planning (β = -.245, p = .004) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Abstract. More use of maladaptive (self-blame, catastrophizing, rumination) and less use of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation adaptive strategies (positive reappraisal, refocus on planning) were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms in the whole sample. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. No, Is the Subject Area "Medical risk factors" applicable to this article? Difficulty in regulating evoked emotions is often thought to lead to depression [11,12,31]. One study reported that emotion regulation strategies were found to mediate the relationship between interpersonal stress and depressive symptoms in undergraduate students . Anxiety was present in 37% (41/112) and depression in 26% (29/112) of the RP patients. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. The research problem in this article is: Is there a relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health outcomes (Bauermeister, & Meanley, & Hickok, & Pingel, & VanHemert, & Loveluck, 2013). The title of this article is âAssociation between antenatal depression and low birthweight in a developing countryâ. Future investigations are necessary to determine whether patients with a strong anxiety join the RP society or whether the anxiety is lessened by joining the RP society. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The degree of depressive symptoms was measured with the Child Depression Inventory-2 [46,47], a revision of the CDI [48,49]. A MANOVA on the total sample showed gender differences in cognitive emotion regulation strategies (F(9,388) = 2.754, p = .004), specifically girls scored lower on Other blame than boys (F(1,396) = 6.642, p = .010) and girls scored higher on Rumination than boys (F(1,396) = 8.548, p = .004). The Japan RP society provides information about care and treatment to its members periodically, and they share a place to discuss the latest information on RP. We used a multi-sample approach, including a community sample and clinically referred depressed outpatients. For the successful care of RP patients with deteriorating vision, the state of depression should be monitored carefully. It has been reported that patients with RP have lower educational levels, lower employment rates, and lower income levels . In a total of 653 adolescents (of whom 84 were outpatients), those who rated no life event as stressful (n = 35) were excluded. here. Chaumet-Riffaud et al also reported that anxiety was not significantly correlated with the visual functions although the depressive state tended to worsen as the visual functions decreased . It has been established that financial independence is an important factor for a stable psychological state, and this most likely accounts for the significant relationship between employment and the depressive state of the RP patients. Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan, Affiliation: This dual process of self-referent association and cognitive reflection is considered to be of importance for the regulation of emotions. A well-established predictor of depressive symptoms is the experience of a stressful life event , like a romantic break up. Within the depressed group, direct associations between relational challenging stressful life events and self-blame (β = .195, p = .049), catastrophizing (β = .209, p = .041) and rumination (β = .240, p = .011) were found. Affiliation Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation could representative of the self-referent association of the dual process model and adaptive cognitive reflection is considered to be of importance for the regulation of emotions. The next step is to generalize the collected data into a wide range of people to describe the process. UMIN000018444). A review of patient experience research can provide a comprehensive overview of this important form of evidence and thus enable the voices and subjectivities of those affected by depression â¦ Score definition. Multi-group analysis was used to test differences in depression level. Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan, Affiliation: Thus, the absence of a significant relationship between anxiety and visual functions might be a universal psychological reaction to ocular diseases. In their study, the psychological state was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and their study group was younger than our group. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192300 The comparative fit index (CFI, preferably .95 or higher), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, preferably .08 or lower), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR, preferably .09 or lower) served as model fit indices . This research is funded by Zonmw- the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development, grant number 80-82435-98-10117. The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms was established in our study. Earlier studies found that a substantial number of 75% to 80% of children do not develop mental health problems after the death of a parent or sibling, but these studies also found a significant increase in internalizing symptoms in these cases [60–64]. Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan, This difference might be because the average age of their subjects was 30 years which was much younger than the mean age of our cohort at 60.7 ± 15.4 years. [1,3] Statistical data estimate an increase in the number of patients with dementia and thus dramatically high costs of care. Furthermore, life stress appears to deplete cognitive resources, which are necessary for reflective processes to correct associative processing . Health threats and relational challenging stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms, while loss was not. These findings indicate that doctors who treat RP patients need to treat not only the ocular problems but also the social problems such as employment and financial security. The difference of socioeconomics status in the HADS-A or HADS-D score by Mann Whitney test. Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Affiliation: Our findings suggest that using maladaptive strategies can be more harmful, than the absence of using adaptive strategies. Keywords: men, masculinity, depression, help seeking, grounded theory Major depression is a central concern for both scholars and clinicians. Mediation was not found after losing a loved one or experiencing a health threat. First, according to the literature, testing mediational models on the etiology of adolescent depression was needed . For this study, we constructed the Life Event Scale , a 23 item self-report questionnaire about three types of life events, based on the distinction of psychological stress made by Lazarus ; Loss (1 item: death of a loved one including pets), Health threat (8 items: serious (mental) illness, suicide attempt, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, alcohol or drug abuse, crime and accidents concerning the self (not for suicide attempt), parent, sibling or friends), and Relational (or situational) challenges (14 items: parental divorce, step-parents, moving, changing schools, romantic break-up, police contact (parent or self), redundancy (parent or self), pregnancy, school failure, being bullied, conflict with parents or friends, being expelled from school). Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. 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