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The word "Yamal" means "end of the earth." Population processes in Willow Ptarmigan (L. lagopus), as the most numerous game-bird species in the tundra, are rather well investi-243 POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE WILLOW PTARMIGAN IN THE NORTH OF YAMAL PENINSULA AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEM VLADIMIR V. TARASOV Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, RAS, Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg, Russia. The aim was an accurate estimate of the total area of direct and indirect impacts encompassing all visible signs of disturbance. Discussion topics included experiences with ecological, socioeconomic, and industrial influences on their ability to maintain nomadic herding as a viable livelihood. Vegetation biomass measurements were made in the vicinity of BGF, situated on lowland clayey substrates subject to extensive anthropogenic disturbance and included within the Quickbird-2 satellite coverage described above. Photo about Far North, Yamal Peninsula, a reindeer herder`s assistant, a woman in national clothes of the Nenets native population. The wettest sites are Sphagnum mires dominated by sedges (Carex spp., Eriophorum spp.) The combined social and ecological fieldwork was conducted at a few key locations within the Yarsalinskii sovkhoz, which extends from the mainland forest-tundra zone in the south (≈65°30′N) to the “typical” tundra in the north along the coast of the Kara Sea on western Yamal Peninsula (≈71°30′N) (Fig. These end points of the longest reindeer migration routes correspond, respectively, to Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map subzones E and D (63). At the growing season peak in mid-July 2005 we sampled vegetation biomass in three random off-road tracks in willow-characterized shrub vegetation. Закон №119-ЗАО от 17 ноября 2010 г. Distribution and Population Estimates for Swans in the Siberian Arctic in the 1990s EVGENY E. SYROECHKOVSKI,JR. My flight from Moscow to Salekhard lasted 3 hours. Yamal IRI always carries a magic staff and a shaman's tambourine. Now that the conditions for successful coexistence are known, and a reliable knowledge base on both sides exists via this and previous studies, proper implementation could turn the region into an exemplar of global relevance for the future. The region also accounts for 12% of Russia's oil production. Modern healthcare is typically delivered through stationary hospitals, which are usually formed in areas with populations large enough to support the heavy investment that modern hospitals require. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. Investments by industry must undergo a cost-benefit analysis for the ecological and socio-cultural situation in the tundra, rather than focusing on development of sedentary communities. The area being rapidly developed lies north of the Se-Yakha River, between BGF and Kharasavey (Fig. Nenets and Khanty reindeer herders hold about half a million domestic reindeer.  Due to the area's oil and natural gas wealth, it is one of the few places in Russia where the ethnic Russian population is growing. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа». That's 22 percent of the entire reindeer population in the affected Yamal peninsula. However, alternative ecosystem states in tundra can result from both anthropogenic and zoogenic disturbance (33, 36). Intraguild competition Introduction The most widely published changes in the geographic dis-tribution of mammalian species in the Arctic is the expan- sion of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the retraction of the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) (Post et al. Он получит перевалочную базу в Европе", "China criticizes new U.S. sanctions over Iranian oil deals", "США включили в санкционный список по Ирану китайские компании", "Российский СПГ атаковали рикошетом: Санкции США лишают «Ямал СПГ» трети флота", "Iran-related Designations; Issuance of Iran-related Frequently Asked Question", "США сняли санкции с компании—владельца танкеров для «Ямал СПГ»", "U.S. lifts Iran sanctions on one unit of Chinese shipping giant COSCO", Informational website of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yamalo-Nenets_Autonomous_Okrug&oldid=999909384, Russian-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1930, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 15:38. Although floristic reductions can persist for decades or centuries, and intensify with increasing latitude (9, 36), species diversity within the most productive habitats is not necessarily the key to quality forage for reindeer in summer (33, 37). If nomads' suggestions are considered, money would be redistributed away from village housing to increase ecological safety of tundra infrastructure, raising pipelines (see Fig. On the first day of my arrival we attended a local photo-exhibition and in the evening we went to an unusual restaurant "Yamal" built on piles of a bridge across the river. 15 refs. Opinion: Will understanding the ocean lead to “the ocean we want”? Occupying lowland and relatively moist substrates with clayey soils, the prevailing vegetation at BGF is a dense cover of willows (Salix spp.). Overall, flexible use of the area is a key component of the SES, which has enabled it so far to respond successfully to outside pressures. This shows that, in principle, they have the capacity to be reformed according to new exogenous changes, e.g., pasture compartmentalization by industry. While we can observe an alternative ecosystem state because of the changes in vegetation in the vicinity of BGF, the alternative state of the social-cultural system (30) would imply a significant reduction of reindeer nomadism in the area, if more attention is not paid to building a constructive dialogue for the future (52). Simply by pressing a palm against the back of another person's, we counted all the mosquitoes killed and the numbers ranged from 70 to 80 mosquitoes in a few square inches. The ecological resilience concept presumes the existence of multiple stability domains and tolerance of the system to disturbances that facilitate transitions among stable states (30).  On 30 January 2020, the United States lifted sanctions on Cosco Shipping Tanker (Dalian) and its TC LNG . Yamal reindeer are intensively managed 24 h a day, 365 days a year by whole families through generations. Color and panchromatic satellite images were interpreted in the field with herders and workers, who were easily able to recognize landscape features, migration routes, and even nomadic campsites (Fig. Astronomers thought they’d finally figured out where gold and other heavy elements in the universe came from. , When ice precludes shipping along the Northern Sea Route, then the Fluxys terminal at Zeebrugge, Belgium, will serve Russia as the LNG port for the Asia-Pacific region. This is an example of path dependency (56) (see SI Text). Yamal Peninsula occupies a low (30–70 m above sea level) sedimentary plain, extending over three bioclimatic subzones (63), with fine-grained Pleistocene sand underlain by saline marine clay with widespread ice-rich permafrost. The Ob River flows through Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to the Kara Sea via the Gulf of Ob, which dominates the geography of the Okrug (together with its two sub-bays, the Taz Estuary and Khalmyer Bay.. The shrub layer consisted mainly of Salix glauca L. and S. lanata L. averaging 40–50 cm high. Population: 42,544 (2010 Census); 36,827 (2002 Census); 32,334 (1989 Census). Global warming has claimed the lives of at least 80,000 reindeer on the Yamal Peninsula in the past decade, the scientists said. The systemic approach based mainly on computer simulation has been used to assess the dynamics of ecosystems of the Yamal Peninsula, which have been exposed to the impact of numerous reindeer herds because of extensive development of reindeer breeding during the past decades. Long-term studies on mechanisms of its population dynamics have been conducted in Scotland (Jenkins et al. Following an outbreak of anthrax which decimated herds in 2016, the Yamal government announced a plan to reduce the reindeer population in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug by one third, officially to stop the disease spreading. 1963), Norway (Myr-berget 1984), and Canada (Bergerud 1970, Hannon and Barry 1986). The prevailing erect shrub cover at BGF corresponded to the vegetation type “Salix lanata-Brachythecium mildeanum” recently described for the area (64). Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (20 ноября 2010 г.). The statistical analyses were conducted in R statistical environment (version 2.6.2) using generalized linear models with quasipoisson error structure (www.R-project.org). Such a state would reverse Nenets nomads' generally supportive approach to mutual coexistence with industry. Considering recent events raises the concept of “socio-ecological carrying capacity” (15) of the area, and a potentially lethal trap (57), in which the capacity for Nenets to adapt moves beyond their control. Online ISSN 1091-6490. These can be 50–60 cm high in hollows and other microsites with protective snow cover, but tend to average 30–40 cm. population is malnutrition, as in the autumn-winter period in 1999 about 20.000 heads of deer died from it, and from 2013 to 2014 – 90.000 heads. National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska's North Slope, The globalization of socio-ecological systems: An agenda for scientific research, Otkrytoe Akcionernoe Obŝestvo Sredne-Uralskoye Knizhnoye Izdatelstvo, Anthropogenic Transformation of Landscapes and Analysis of the Ecological Situation in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Disturbance and Recovery in Arctic Lands: An Ecological Perspective, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Vserossijskij Naučno-issledovatelskij i Proektivnyj Institut Gazdovycha, Baseline for Investments in the Development of Bovanenkovo Deposit on the Yamal Peninsula and Gas Transport, Vserossijskij Naučno-issledovatelskij i Proektivnyj Institut Gazdovycha, Saratov and Vserossijskij Naučno-issledovatelskij Institut Prirodnyh Gazov i Gazovyh Tehnologij, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Arctic Adaptations: Native Whalers and Reindeer Herders of Northern Eurasia, Reindeer Nomads Meet the Market: Culture, Property, and Globalization at the End of the Land, Reindeer pastoralism in modern Siberia: Research and survival in the time of crash, Success at the edge of the land: Past and present challenges for reindeer herders in the West Siberian Yamalo-Nenetskii Autonomous Okrug, Family-Based Reindeer Herding and Hunting Economies, and the Status and Management of Wild Reindeer/Caribou Populations, New visions for addressing sustainability, Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters, Building resilience and adaptation to manage Arctic change, Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses, Illustrating the coupled human–environment system for vulnerability analysis: Three case studies, Complexity of coupled human and natural systems, Surrogates for resilience of social–ecological systems, Grazing management, resilience, and the dynamics of a fire-driven rangeland system, Adaptation to environmental change: Contributions of a resilience framework, The challenges of modernity for reindeer management in northernmost Europe, Do herbivores cause habitat degradation or vegetation state transition? Bare soil and litter cover were measured with special attention to visible signs of human impact. Herders expressed strong concern about the potential loss of fish as an essential source of protein during the long summer migration when they do not slaughter reindeer. , According to a 2012 survey 42.2% of the population of Yamalia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church, 14% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are believers in Orthodox Christianity who do not belong to any church, 1% are members of the Slavic neopaganism (Rodnovery) or practitioners of local shamanic religions, and 1% are members of Protestant churches; Muslims, mostly Caucasian peoples and Tatars, make up 18% of the total population. 8) also crosses BGF, but was accompanied outside of the immediately affected area for 200 km of their migration in autumn 2007 toward the slaughterhouse at Yar Sale (Fig. Copyright © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. with lesser amounts of grasses and herbs. The result is a steady “nibbling” away of territories essential for reindeer nomadism (see SI Text). Leafy and woody material were separated, oven-dried at 60 °C for 48 h, and weighed. gated. Parallel transects were established 12 m apart from the track center in relatively undisturbed vegetation. Visibility of different impacts was compared among images using field sites and photographs from helicopter and ground level. Yet another construction related to the Yamal mega gas export in the Yuribey river, at the expense of local bodiversity and the Nenets indigenous population's cultural and social values. From the 1960s to the 1980s, due to the influx of oil and gas workers, Nenets became marginalized in their own homeland. In addition, 14% of the population declare to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% are atheist, and 0.8% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Average road and off-road track widths were measured from 25 locations in panchromatic Quickbird-2 imagery. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г.  As of late September 2019, the Joint Venture TC LNG between the Cosco Shipping Tanker Dalian company (50% stake) and the Canadian firm Teekay is the China LNG Shipping Ltd (CLNG) which has more than one third of Sabetta's LNG ice fleet, six ARC7 LNG tankers: Eduard Toll (Russian: «Эдуард Толль»), Rudolf Samoilovich (Russian: «Рудольф Самойлович»), Nikolay Evgenov (Russian: «Николай Евгенов»), Vladimir Voronin (Russian: «Владимир Воронин») all of which are operating, Georgy Ushakov (Russian: «Георгий Ушаков») which is going to Sabetta after sea trials, and Yakov Gakkel (Russian: «Яков Гаккель») which is under sea trials at a South Korean shipyard. We envision a looming threshold related to the sheer scale of future expected needs of industry for territory, concomitant pasture, and lake/river degradation, coupled with a rapidly growing industrial workforce at the same time as climate is warming. Formal institutions for mitigating ecological damage remain weak and constitute a “misfit” (29), because enforcement of existing laws is minimal. Salekhard Airport is an airport in Tyumen Oblast, Russia located 7 km north of Salekhard. Administrative divisions of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Dmitry Nikolayevich Kobylkin, Governor of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (, "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. «О гимне Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа». One brigade (no. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the. , From 1960 to 2016, Yamal Nenets population increased from 60 000 people to more than 530 000 due to the natural resources discovered in the region. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Prospects: up to 360 billion cubic meters of gas per year. was negligible, with few seedlings counted, and only minimal visible lateral regrowth from intact shrubs bordering tracks. This remote peninsula in the Russian Arctic extends for 700 kilometres into the Kara Sea, and now several pipelines, offshore gas fields, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals have made it their home. People in Yamal have been partially domesticating reindeer for hunting, transport, food, clothing and shelter for much of the past two millennia. Description: The Obskaya – Bovanenkovo railway is related to Gazprom’s Yamal gas megaproject in the Arctic Russia. The same problem of fit (29) characterizes the norms governing consultation and legal land rights that either largely exclude herders or are not implemented because of diverse interests of government, companies, and indigenous representatives. Based on a careful review of the trends observed, industry plans, and specific ongoing and potential problems perceived by the Nenets, we speculate on limitations of the observed resilience. “Complex of Geophysical Studies of the Seyakha Catastrophic Gas Blowout Crater on the Yamal Peninsula, Russian Arctic.” Geosciences 10.6 (2020): 215. Of the Yamal Peninsula’s Nenets population, roughly half are nomadic reindeer herders and half live sedentary lives in these villages. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. S4), and another one (no. However, institutions controlling movement of people and animals in space and time remain flexible and allow Nenets to retain possession of their herds, which are able to exploit a wide range of ecologically variable natural and anthropogenic habitats. Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. Опубликован: "Красный Север", спецвыпуск №147/1, 20 ноября 2010 г. Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. wrote the paper. Yamal Peninsula to host unique expedition On August 1, the Roads of the Sikhirtya ethnographic expedition will start in the Nadym District of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, the Arctic-Info agency reports. Key words: Willow Ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus, population dynamics, Yamal Peninsula. Novatek – the country's second-largest gas producer – is also active in the region, with its headquarters located in Tarko-Sale. Our ecological findings demonstrate that the dramatic transition from shrub- to graminoid-dominated tundra pastures related to development is steadily increasing from the local to the regional scale. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. Authors: Dobrinskii, N L; Sosin, V F  + Show Author Affiliations. Even its capital, Yar-Sale, is a village of just 6,500 people. We thank Gary Kofinas, Oran Young, Terry Chapin, and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments and all of the reindeer herders that collaborated with us. We have demonstrated a clear ecological threshold crossing in the shift from woody- to graminoid-dominated tundra. Resilience is the property that mediates transition among these states (49, 50). In light of recent results, they’re not so sure. High-resolution data used were ASTER TERRA with 15-m resolution (four channels from July 21, 2001), Landsat TM with 30-m resolution (seven channels from August 7, 1988), and Landsat MSS with 80-m resolution (four channels from July 28, 1984). The above-ground plant material was clipped from a 25 × 25-cm plot and sorted by growth form (deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, graminoids, forbs, bryophytes, lichens). Approximately 3,000 of a total population of 50,000 practice nomadic reindeer herding on the Yamal peninsula, migrating up to 1,000 km between winter and summer pastures, tending up to 175,000 reindeer. Their populations are a mixture of ethnic Russians and Nenets. The Yamal Peninsula, comparable in size to the American state of Mississippi, contains no major cities. Each nomadic group consisted of 10–90 people comprised of two to nine nuclear families managing from 3,000 to 8,000 animals. Yamalo-Nenets region, Russia facts, resources, climate, photos: Законодательное Собрание Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Resource extraction in the Russian Far North has led to increasing conflicts with the nomadic population in recent years. The Yamal Peninsula is home to 10,000 indigenous Nenets, half of whom still practice reindeer herding as a nomadic way of life. We note in certain cases what were originally intended as formal governmental institutions, such as the Soviet concept of brigades, have become redefined according to local particularities and culturally embedded needs of nomads (15). Image of sled, alaska, russia - 179774704 The aim of our study was to assess frequency of respiratory symptoms in reindeer herders, native population of peninsula Yamal. Very high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2) was acquired July 15, 2004 with a spatial resolution of 2.4 m on the multispectral channels (blue, green, red, and infrared) and 0.63 cm on the panchromatic channel. One hypothesis holds that some time after settlement on the Yamal Peninsula at the end of the 11th century CE, all ties between the Buchta-Nakhodka population and the inhabitants of the Ob-Irtysh Basin were terminated, and that new intra-territorial ties in several different directions were formed. Six hundred reindeer herders (38.3% men) aged 30-54 yrs (mean age 42.2 yr), representing 34.0% of total population, participated in our cross-sectional survey. Extrapolation of swan counts re-corded during aerial surveys in 1968-1969 gave an estimate of up to 5,600 Bewick's Swans in Western Siberia; 2,600 on the Yamal and 3,000 on the Gydan Peninsula (Uspens-ki and Kistchinski 1972). One patient has already died. Their prehistoric life involved subsistence hunting and gathering, including the taking of polar bears; the practice of hunting polar bears (Ursus maritimus) continues up to the present time.. Also affected are five ARC7 tankers which Dynagas will supply in a partnership between Sinotrans&CSC and CLNG (25.5% stake), as well as three ARC7 tankers from a joint venture between the Cosco subsidiary Shanghai LNG and Japan's MOL (株式会社商船三井). If he waves a tambourine, you can make a wish. Alkaline substrates are rare (9). Currently, 380 000 domestic reindeers are grazed on 106000 km 2 of the Yamal peninsula. Therefore, we argue that the adaptive capacity of smaller herds to “land change” (60) by gas development is greater than that for larger herds. We have revealed that free movement of people, animals, and goods increases herders' capacity to respond to combined ecological and social change and facilitates contacts between nomads and incoming workers with all associated favorable and problematic consequences. , In 2009, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug is Russia's most important source of natural gas, with more than 90% of Russia's natural gas being produced there. Salekhard lasted 3 hours result from both anthropogenic and zoogenic disturbance ( 33, 36 ) with better drainage characterized... Models with quasipoisson error structure ( www.R-project.org ) Santa Claus from Yamal is located in.... To assess frequency of respiratory symptoms in reindeer herders, native population of Peninsula Yamal to to! Russia located 7 km north of the local flora occur in anthropogenic habitats and just 8 % nomadic! These can be 50–60 cm high in hollows and other microsites with protective snow cover to! 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